Building wiring is the electrical wiring and associated devices such as switches, meters and light fittings used in buildings or other structures.
Electrical wiring uses insulated conductors. Wires and cables are rated by the circuit voltage, temperature and environmental conditions (moisture, sunlight, oil, chemicals) in which they can be used, and their maximum current.
Wiring safety codes are intended to protect people and property from electrical shock and fire hazards.
Regulations may be established by city, county, provincial/state or national legislation, usually by adopting a model code (with or without local amendments) produced by a technical standards-setting organisation, or by a national standard electrical code. Electrical codes arose in the 1880s with the commercial introduction of electrical power.
The proposals are studied by committees of engineers, tradesmen, manufacturer representatives, fire fighters and other invitees. Since 1927, the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) has produced the Canadian Safety Standard for Electrical Installations, which is the basis for provincial electrical codes.
The CSA also produces the Canadian Electrical Code, the 2006 edition of which references IEC 60364 (Electrical Installations for Buildings) and states that the code addresses the fundamental principles of electrical protection in Section 131.
The Canadian code reprints Chapter 13 of IEC 60364, but there are no numerical criteria listed in that chapter to assess the adequacy of any electrical installation. Although the US and Canadian national standards deal with the same physical phenomena and broadly similar objectives, they differ occasionally in technical detail.As part of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) program, US and Canadian standards are slowly converging toward each other, in a process known as harmonisation. In Germany, DKE (the German Commission for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies of DIN and VDE) is the organisation responsible for the promulgation of electrical standards and safety specifications.
The 17th edition (issued in January 2008) includes new sections for microgeneration and solar photovoltaic systems.The first edition was published in 1882. In Australia and New Zealand, the AS/NZS 3000 standard, commonly known as the "wiring rules", specifies requirements for the selection and installation of electrical equipment, and the design and testing of such installations. The standard is mandatory in both New Zealand and Australia; therefore, all electrical work covered by the standard must comply. In European countries, an attempt has been made to harmonise national wiring standards in an IEC standard, IEC 60364 Electrical Installations for Buildings.
Hence national standards follow an identical system of sections and chapters.However, this standard is not written in such language that it can readily be adopted as a national wiring code.
In North America, the American Wire Gauge standard for wire sizes is used.
Electrical services, which provides, for example, emergency power can be ordered by phone..